你的位置: 首页 / 儿童行为与健康 / 学龄前儿童行为与健康

学龄前儿童与幼儿的行为管理

学龄前儿童与幼儿的行为管理
价格:
AUD
AU$0.00
    请选择您想要的信息X
数量:
-
+
(2000可用)
运费估算:
预计送达时间:
请选择您要发货的国家/地区
  • 描述
  • 商品评论

行为管理与幼儿

2-5岁

内容由raisingchildren.net.au提供 

处理孩子的行为是育儿最具挑战性的方面之一。

行为管理旨在指导孩子的行为,以便他们学习适当的行为方式,而不仅仅是在他们做自己不喜欢的事情时惩罚他们。积极而富有建设性的方法通常是指导孩子行为的最好方法。

理解:儿童行为管理的第一步

在不同阶段和特定情况下,孩子表现出挑战性的行为是正常的。因此,试图了解孩子的行为是管理行为的重要一步。例如,发脾气在幼儿和学龄前儿童中很常见,因为在这个年龄段,孩子有很大的感情,没有足够的语言来表达它们。帮助孩子更好地表达自己的感受比惩罚更有效。

赞美

儿童更有可能重复赢得赞美的行为。这意味着您可以使用赞美来帮助改变困难的行为并将其替换为期望的行为。

第一步是注意孩子表现出自己想要的方式的时间。当您看到此消息时,请立即引起您的孩子的注意,并准确告诉他们您的喜好-例如,“用单词问那个玩具真是太好了”。

奖赏

奖励是良好行为的结果。这是在您的孩子表现良好或表现良好后说“做得很好”的一种方式。例如,作为保持房间整洁的奖励,您可以让您的孩子选择晚餐吃什么。

奖励起初可以很好地发挥作用,但最好不要过度使用它们。如果您需要大量使用它们,则可能有助于重新考虑这种情况–您是否可以尝试其他任何策略来鼓励您想要的行为?还是现在的任务或行为对您的孩子来说太难了?

请注意,贿赂和报酬是不同的。贿赂在您想要的行为之前发生,而报酬在之后发生。奖励可以增强良好行为,但贿赂却不能。

内容由raisingchildren.net.au提供 

例行程序

例行程序可以帮助家庭成员知道谁应该,何时,以什么顺序和频率执行什么。这可能意味着不那么无聊的行为,例如无聊的牙齿清洁,玩后整理或关闭电视。

您还可以为孩子们安排游戏,进餐和睡眠的例程。当孩子有足够的优质睡眠,营养丰富的食物和充足的玩耍时,他们更有可能表现出您想要的方式。

计划忽略

当孩子表现异常时,有计划的忽略不会引起孩子的注意。这意味着当他们那样行事时,不要看着他们,也不要与他们交谈。

例如,如果您正在用餐,并且您的孩子在座位上来回蹦蹦跳跳,您可以将他们从谈话中移开,直到他们停下来再看着他们。

当他们停下来时,您可以说:“晚餐时您仍然坐在椅子上,我会喜欢的。您为什么不告诉我们您今天在学前班做了什么?

要做好准备-被忽略的行为往往在变得更好之前变得更糟。孩子们可能会抱怨或na更多,希望您能做出回应。在决定是否将计划忽略用作行为策略时,应考虑这一点。

规则

家庭规则是有关您的家人希望如何照顾和对待其家人的正面陈述。规则可以帮助您家庭中的每个人更好地相处,并使家庭生活更加和平。三岁的孩子可以帮助您制定规则,并讨论您的家人为什么需要这些规则。

选择最重要的事情来制定规则,例如,对于大多数家庭来说,不互相伤害身体的规则是必须的。

您可能还会制定有关安全性,举止,礼貌,日常工作和相互尊重的规则。

后果

有时候,您可能会选择对不良行为使用负面后果-例如,在简单提醒不起作用时加强规则。

行为困难的一些后果包括:

  • 您的孩子拒绝带外套去公园,后来她感觉很冷。
  • 您的孩子在父亲面前发誓,以后不允许他看电视。
  • 您的孩子拒绝共享玩具,他必须在一个无玩具的安全无聊的房间里暂停五分钟。

为三年以上的儿童保留后果。小于此年龄的孩子并不能真正理解后果,特别是如果他们不了解自己的行为与这些行为的结果之间的联系。

建议影片

访问 raisingchildren.net.au,获得免费的育儿视频和澳大利亚专家支持的文章。
 

Behaviour management and young children

Ages 2-5 years

Content supplied by raisingchildren.net.au.

Dealing with children’s behaviour is one of the most challenging aspects of parenting.

Behaviour management is about guiding your child’s behaviour so that they learn the appropriate way to behave, rather than just punishing them when they do something you don’t like. A positive and constructive approach is often the best way to guide your child’s behaviour.

Understanding: the first step to child behaviour management

It’s normal for children to behave in challenging ways at different stages and in particular situations. So trying to understand your child’s behaviour is an important step in managing it. For example, tantrums are very common in toddlers and preschoolers, because at this age children have big feelings and not enough words to express them. Helping your child express his feelings in a better way will be more effective than punishment.

Praise

Children are more likely to repeat behaviour that earns praise. This means you can use praise to help change difficult behaviour and replace it with desirable behaviour.

The first step is to watch for times when your child behaves the way you want. When you see this, immediately get your child’s attention and tell them exactly what you liked – for example, ‘It’s great how you used words to ask for that toy’.

Rewards

A reward is a consequence of good behaviour. It’s a way of saying ‘well done’ after your child has done something good or behaved well. For example, as a reward for keeping his room tidy, you might let your child choose what’s for dinner.

Rewards can work well at first, but it’s best not to overuse them. If you need to use them a lot, it might help to rethink the situation – are there any other strategies that you could try to encourage the behaviour you want? Or is the task or behaviour too hard for your child right now?

Note that bribery and rewards aren’t the same. A bribe is given before the behaviour you want, and a reward is given after. Rewards reinforce good behaviour, but bribes don’t.

Content supplied by raisingchildren.net.au.

Routines

Routines help family members know who should do what, when, in what order and how often. This can mean less inappropriate behaviour about boring things such as cleaning teeth, tidying up after play, or switching the TV off.

You can also build routines for young children around play, meals and sleep. When children have had enough good-quality sleep, nutritious food and plenty of play, they’re more likely to behave the way you want.

Planned ignoring

Planned ignoring is paying no attention to a child when they're misbehaving. It means not looking at them and not talking to them while they behaves that way.

For example, if you’re having a family meal and your child is bouncing up and down on his seat, you could leave them out of the conversation and not look at them until they stop.

When they stops, you could say, ‘I love it when you sit still on your chair at dinner. Why don’t you tell us what you did at preschool today?’

Be prepared – behaviour that’s ignored often gets worse before it gets better. Children might complain or nag more, hoping you’ll respond. You should consider this when deciding whether to use planned ignoring as a behaviour strategy.

Rules

Family rules are positive statements about how your family wants to look after and treat its members. Rules can help everyone in your family get along better, and make family life more peaceful. Children as young as three can help you make the rules and talk about why your family needs them.

Choose the most important things to make rules about – for example, a rule about not physically hurting each other would be a must for most families.

You might also develop rules about safety, manners, politeness, daily routines and respect for each other.

Consequences

There are times when you might choose to use negative consequences for difficult behaviour – for example, to reinforce rules when simple reminders haven’t worked.

Some consequences for difficult behaviour include:

  • your child refuses to carry her coat to the park, she feels cold later.
  • your child swears at his dad, he isn’t allowed to watch TV later.
  • your child refuses to share a toy, he has to have five minutes of time-out in a safe and boring room without toys.

Reserve consequences for children over three years. Children younger than this don’t really understand consequences, particularly if they don’t understand the connection between their actions and the outcomes of those actions.

Suggested videos

Visit raisingchildren.net.au for free parenting videos and articles backed by Australian experts.

平均评级: 5.0
与其他客户分享您的想法
撰写评论
产品的评论在会员登录之后才能发表, 请点击此处进行登录